Submitted by Rohini Kamble
I] INTRODUCTIONArticle 25 (2) of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 provides, "Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection." Children are exploited in various ways therefore the need to extend particular care was felt. It has also been stated in the Geneva Declaration of Rights of the Child of 1924. The U.N. and its specialized agencies have done pioneering work in this area.
II] RIGHTS OF CHILDArticle 24 of the International Convention of Child and Political Rights, 1966 states :
(1) every child shall have without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and state.
(2) Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.
(3) Every child has the right to acquire Nationality
A declaration adopted by General Assembly in 1959 which contains following rights:
(1) Every child shall enjoy all rights without distinction on the basis of race, colour, sex, language, religion etc.
(2) The child shall enjoy special protection and shall be given opportunities and facilities by law and other means to enable him to develop in all fields.
(3) Every child shall be entitled from his birth to name and nationality
(4) Child shall enjoy the benefits of social security
III] UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)The purpose of United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, established by the General Assembly in 1946; was to provide assistance to children. The work of UNICEF has been supervised and reviewed periodically by the Economic and Social Council. It helps and aims at improving the life of children.
IV] CONVENTION ON RIGHTS OF CHILD, 1989Convention is nothing but a elaboration of Human Rights standards in respect of the child. The convention was adopted by the General Assembly Resolution 44/25 on 20th November, 1989. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 is a binding treaty to which 176 nations have become 'State Parties'. It consists of 54 Articles dealing with Rights of Child and their implementation etc. Article 1 of the Convention defines the term 'Child' according to it Child means every human being below the age of 18 years. The convention gives certain civil rights and liberties to the child. Which includes;
(1) Every child has inherent right to life and shall be ensured to the maximum extent possible the survival and development
(2) Right to name and nationality: Every child shall have a right to be registered immediately after birth, right to name and nationality and right to know and be cared for by his or her parents;
(3) Right to identity: Every child has a right to preserve his or her identity, nationality, name and family relations;
(4) Right to freedom of expression: every child has right to freedom of expression which includes freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds.
(5) Every child has right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion
Some other civil rights of the child given in Article 6, 17 and 30 are Right to life, Right to name and nationality, Right to identity. Right to expression, Right to freedom of association and peaceful assembly, Right to privacy etc.
V] RIGHT TO FAMILY ENVIRONMENTOne of the most important rights under this convention given to the child is right to family environment. It says that a child should not be separated from his or her parents; a child is entitled to family environment and protection from all forms of violence, prevention of illicit transfer etc. It also provides following rights;
(1) Educational rights of a child;
(2) The right to special protection in emergency
(3) The right of child in relation to administration of justice
(4) The right against exploitation
(5) Right to protection against drug abuse
VI] WORLD DECLARATION ON THE SURVIVAL, PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN, 1990This declaration gives 10 point program for the protection of the rights of the children and improvement in their lives. It also provides that children are entitled to joy and peace, playing, growing which are necessary for the harmonious development of children.
Submitted by Rohini Kamble